br Fig HPSEC profile of GTP detected by refractive index
Fig. 5. HPSEC profile of GTP detected by refractive index detector (RID).
tumorigenesis of PC-3 JSH-23 in nude mice. In vivo tumorigenic studies further verified that miR-93 mimic treatment actively accelerated the growth of PC-3 xenograft tumors when compared with control tumors of mice injected with miR-NC only. These findings strongly suggest that miR-93 can be potentially used as an effective biomarker to predict out-comes and hopeful therapeutic target for PC patients.
With the aim of finding a novel antitumor supplement from natural source with limited toxicity. We isolated and characterized a purified polysaccharide from Green tea and test its in vitro growth inhibitory ef-fect on PC-3 cells, which was achieved by induction of apoptosis through the mechanism involving the elevation of bax and caspase-3 protein, but attenuation of bcl-2 protein and miR-93 expression. These findings greatly shed light on the discovery of a potential therapeutic agent for PC by inhibiting miR-93 expression. However, it is still neces-sary to carry out detailed investigation to extend our understanding of the mechanism by which it works in the near future.
 H.R. Park, D. Hwang, H.J. Suh, K.W. Yu, T.Y. Kim, K.S. Shin, Antitumor and antimetastatic activities of rhamnogalacturonan-II-type polysaccharide isolated from mature leaves of green tea via activation of macrophages and natural killer cells, Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 99 (2007) 179–186.
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Materials Science & Engineering C
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/msec
Anti-tumor potential of astragalus polysaccharides on breast cancer cell line T mediated by macrophage activation
Wenfang Lia, Kedong Songa, , Shuping Wanga, Chenghong Zhangb, Meiling Zhuanga, Yiwei Wangc, Tianqing Liua
a State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian R&D Center for Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China
b Department of Basic Medicine, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116011, China
c Burns Research Group, ANZAC Research Institute, University of Sydney, Concord, NSW 2139, Australia
Adverse eﬀects are pressing challenges produced by chemotherapy and radiotherapy for the treatment of breast cancer. Nontoxic herbal medicines are therefore considered as a favorable alternative. Astragalus membranaceus has attracted growing interest in the field of biomedicine thanks to its various biological activities, among which the anticancer activity is considered to be closely associated with its active component-astragalus polysaccharide (APS). Currently, direct anti-tumor activity and the activation of immune response of the host have been widely acknowledged as the mechanism by which APS exerts its anti-cancer activity. In this study, we aimed to in-vestigate whether APS could inhibit the growth of MCF-7 cells and activate macrophages to further kill cancer cells. The results indicated that the obtained APS was a pyran-type polysaccharide, containing 89.75% total carbohydrate and a minor amount of uronic acid (9.3%). Although APS did not significantly inhibit the growth of MCF-7 cells growth, encouragingly, APS-activated RAW264.7 macrophages present anti-cancer activity as evidenced by (a) cell proliferation inhibition (with an inhibitory rate of 41%), (b) G1-phase cell cycle arrest, as well as (c) the regulation of apoptosis-related genes (Bax/Bcl-2, 13.26-fold increase than untreated cells). In addition, APS could upregulate the level of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), which acted as inducers of tumor cell apoptosis. Collectively, our findings suggest that APS can activate macrophages to release NO and TNF-α, which directly blocks cancer cell growth. The anti-breast cancer eﬀect of APS and the in vivo mechanism will be further elucidated with a review to provide a therapeutic strategy for breast cancer.
Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death among women following lung cancer . Although considerable progress against cancer has been achieved, multi-faceted challenges still remain including the severe adverse ef-fects caused by chemotherapy and radiotherapy and the drug resistance developed over time . Therefore, more attentions have been paid on new anti-cancer strategies, such as herbal medicines or natural products which are considered nontoxic, multi-targeted and do not lead to the development of drug resistance.
Currently, polysaccharides have attracted considerable attention in biomedical field due to their various pharmacological activities [3,4]. Among the polysaccharides identified, astragalus polysaccharide (APS), the primary active component extracted from Chinese medicinal herb